Texture and surface properties are important choices artists make about the paper they use. Something as simple as texture can alter the outcome of an artist’s work, especially for watercolour artists. There are many choices, brands, and levels of quality that artists evaluate when picking out paper to work with. And for watercolour artists, there are texture options for them to evaluate. Watercolour paper companies make the choices a little easier by labeling watercolour textures either “cold press” or “hot press.”
For a beginner watercolour artist, these unfamiliar terms might feel overwhelming, but they don’t have to be. A little bit of research can help an artist understand the difference between the two papers, and how they enhance the artwork.
What is the difference between cold press and hot press watercolour paper? Cold press is the classic, textured watercolour paper that we commonly associate with watercolour pieces. It is the classic, go-to paper that most artists will probably use for their watercolour projects.
Hot press is a non-textured watercolour paper. The surface is incredibly smooth. But why not choose illustration or bristol board instead of pricey “hot press” watercolour paper, especially if the surface texture is so similar? Hot press watercolour paper is designed to handle multiple, heavy washes of water. Bristol board isn’t made to handle water in the same way. If a creative wants to use a smooth texture for their watercolour work, it’s better not to sacrifice quality to save a few extra dollars.
There is no right or wrong when it comes to cold or hot press paper. It is up to you to decide which works best for you. If you’re undecided which one is better for your work, you can purchase a sheet of both. Experiment and decide which is more suitable for your work. Study the work of other watercolour artists and the press they use for their work. There might be a particular style, using one of the two presses, that appeals to you more. The easiest way to see how watercolour paint and pigment react to the paper is to work with it yourself. We've got a post all about pigments, too!
Cold press tends to absorb the water more readily than hot press. The texture adds instant character to the illustration. The pigments in the watercolour paint granulate and flow in the dips, grooves, and irregularities of cold press paper. This is the signature characteristic of the cold press that everyone associates with watercolour artwork.
Hot press is more suited to fine detail. It handles ink, pens, and penciled details better than cold press. The smooth surface lends itself to precision. Since the surface is smooth, once the washes, glazes, and layers have dried, the irregularities in the water have an exceptional outcome.
Layering your watercolour washes are different for each paper. On a cold press sheet, the washes and layers are a little less distinct. The colours blend a little easier. But on a hot press sheet, the layers build up individually. This property can add a lot to your style.
Cold press allows for some lifting of the paint once it has dried; hot press allows for more lifting and alteration. Because of the way that light refracts on the two textures, cold press paintings aren’t as vivid as hot press paintings. Cold press is absorbent and dries quickly. Hot press is less absorbent and allows for more time to adjust the paint while drying.
Neither choice is wrong. What matters is the artist’s need.
Hot press paper can be a little trickier to get a hold of at art stores, especially since most watercolour artists gravitate to cold press. But if you know the right brands to look for, you shouldn’t have a problem getting a hold of this press.
Whether using cold or hot press it’s always best to use 100% cotton watercolour paper for your finished pieces. Never sacrificing paper quality is a good rule of thumb no matter which watercolour paper you decide to use for your work.
Hot press watercolour paper is quite straight forward: a smooth surface is a smooth surface. Cold press is a different story altogether. The textures of cold press paper actually differ from brand to brand. It might be a subtle difference, but the texture variations can be significant enough to affect your work, especially if you use pencils or pens for your style.
If you are interested in cold press paper for your work, study the various textures that each artist grade brand offers. To test the different textures for yourself, take a few sheets from different brands to see which of them you like the best. For example, some would say Arches’ cold press is a little rougher than Sennelier and Etchr's cold press paper. This is neither good nor bad, it simply depends on what you want for your work. The slightly rougher texture of the Arches’ paper makes it a little trickier to do fine pencil or pen work. A pencil’s fine point wears down to a blunt point rather quickly. In contrast, the slightly smoother cold press makes it a little easier to add embellishments with pencils. It isn’t impossible to add fine details to a rougher texture, but it does take a little more effort. This is just one aspect of many when it comes to determining which cold press texture compliments your work the best. There are many other ways texture can influence your work.
Watercolour paper is its own, wonderful world. The unique properties of cold and hot press have a great deal to offer creatives. You get to decide which works for you, your projects, and your artistic vision. While there is no right or wrong answer, you will discover whether cold or hot press works better for you. You might even find you have use for both of the watercolour presses!